Enhanced Reaction Efficiency in Continuous Flow

Israel Journal of Chemistry, 57(3-4), 218-227, DOI: 10.1002/ijch.201600095

Continuous flow reactors are enabling tools that can significantly benefit chemical reactions, especially those that are path length dependent (e.g., photochemical), mixing or transport dependent (e.g., gas-liquid), exothermic, or utilize hazardous or unstable intermediates. In this review, it is demonstrated how the nearly instantaneous mixing, exceptionally fast mass transfer, safe access to high temperatures and pressures, and high surface area to volume ratio can be leveraged to improve product yield, reaction rates and/or selectivity. By showcasing five synthetic methodologies examined by our group, it is hoped that the reader will gain an appreciation of the accessible and transformative nature of flow chemistry for improving existing transformations, enabling rapid optimization, and for developing new methodologies that depend on precise parameter controls.